This page expands on the "Evidence of Collusion" section from our "Questions and Answers" page, with more details about each person involved and the ways in which they were connected to both Russia and the Trump campaign in 2016.
1.) George Papadopoulos. It is now a legally established fact that a Russia-connected contact (who has since gone missing) "told defendant Papadopoulos about the 'thousands of emails'" Russia had collected. This conversation took place in April 2016, well before the e-mails began to leak out, but a time when "when defendant Papadopoulos had been a foreign policy adviser to the [Trump] Campaign for over a month." (See timeline). It's unclear whether he told anyone else at that time. Neither Papadopoulos nor anyone else in the Trump campaign reported this information to US law enforcement, and Trump continued to publicly deny that Russia was involved in the hacking of the Democratic National Committee until after the election. The FBI investigation of Trump campaign connections to Russia was opened after Papadopoulos disclosed this knowledge to a foreign diplomat, who passed it on to the FBI.
Papadopoulos was also in contact with another Russia-linked businessman who copied Jared Kushner on some of his e-mails. Papadopoulos pushed for the campaign to reach out more directly to Russia, including offering to help set up a direct meeting between candidate Trump and Putin.
2.) Felix Sater. In 2015, a Russian-American Trump associate named Felix Sater had written an e-mail to Trump’s personal lawyer, Michael Cohen, saying: “Buddy our boy can become president of the USA and we can engineer it [...] I will get all of Putins team to buy in on this, I will manage this process.” He was working to develop a Trump Tower in Moscow at the time, with funding from a Russian bank subject to US sanctions. One of the people he was working with was a former agent of Russian military intelligence (the GRU).
Sater is reported to be cooperating in an investigation of money laundering involving investments from Kazakhstan in the Trump SoHo property Sater helped run.
Sater now claims that he didn't really think Trump could get elected or that he could get Putin to help. He does not deny writing the e-mail.
3. Michael Cohen. After receiving the email from Felix Sater, Michael Cohen himself apparently did seek buy in on plans for a Trump tower in Moscow from a member of Putin's team. Fox News reports that he wrote to Putin's press secretary requesting assistance on the real estate deal. In November of 2015, Cohen also spoke on the phone (at Ivanka Trump's request) with a Russian athlete who offered to introduce Donald Trump to Putin to facilitate plans for the building.
A shell company set up by Michael Cohen received payments in 2017 of $1 million from Columbus Nova, an investment firm in New York whose biggest client is a company controlled by Viktor Vekselberg, a Russian oligarch. Cohen met with Vekselberg in Trump Tower shortly before the inauguration, discussing the incoming administration's Russia policy. Vekselberg then attended Trump's inauguration ceremony and private after-parties. The CEO of Columbus Nova, Vekselberg's cousin, Andrew Intrater, made a $250,000 donation to the Trump inauguration fund. Vekselberg's American business partner Len Blavatnik donated $6.35 million to GOP political action committees.
Though he was the president's personal attorney, with no role in government, Michael Cohen was also involved in delivering a very pro-Russia "peace plan" for Ukraine from a Ukrainian politician to National Security Adviser Michael Flynn. The "peace plan" was to have been promoted using funding from Vekselberg.
Finally, according to McClatchy the Special Counsel has evidence that he "secretly made a late-summer trip to Prague during the 2016 presidential campaign" -- which he has categorically denied doing when alleged to have met a Russian contact there.
4.) Paul Manafort. Paul Manafort offered to provide briefings on the race to a Russian billionaire closely aligned with the Kremlin (his former employer, Oleg Deripaska) shortly before the Republican National Convention. He made the offer in e-mails addressed to a Russian intermediary (Konstantin Kilimnik) with ties with Russian military intelligence who had worked for Manafort and with whom Manafort had dinner in August, 2016. Emails from Manafort obtained by the Atlantic appear to indicate that he hoped to use his position as Trump's campaign manager to curry favor with Deripaska -- who had loaned him at least $10 million. Manafort has been charged with money laundering and acting as an unregistered foreign agent for the pro-Putin government of Ukraine as described on the Questions and Answers Page. A more detailed review of evidence of collusion associated with Manafort is available at this link. Manafort's long history with Donald Trump is described here.
5.) Donald Trump Jr. Trump’s son, Donald Trump, Jr, along with Jared Kushner and Paul Manafort, met with Russian operatives after being promised damaging information on Clinton. The e-mails coordinating the meeting said, "This is obviously very high level and sensitive information but is part of Russia and its government's support for Mr. Trump." On these terms, the Trump campaign agreed to a meeting. And indeed, according to the New York Times, the Russian lawyer, Natalia Veselnitskaya, "had discussed the allegations with one of Russia’s most powerful officials, the prosecutor general, Yuri Y. Chaika," and admits to being an "informant" for his office. She has also been linked to other officials in the Russian government.
Among the other attendees of the meeting: Rinat Akhmetshin (a former Russian military intelligence officer who "once said there is no such thing as former”) and Ike Kevaladze (who had been accused of laundering $1.4 billion of Russian money.) Natalia Veselnitskaya followed up after the meeting, and Donald Trump Jr. stayed in touch with the Russian acquaintances who had helped set up the meeting. Natalia Veselnitskya was one of a number of influential Russians who were invited to Trump's inauguration.
Donald Trump Jr. also exchanged direct messages with WikiLeaks. They told him that cooperating with them was "strongly in his interest." He did not report these exchanges. He did tweet out a link they sent him, and asked around about the owners of a website they said they had hacked.
And he met, at the 2016 convention of the National Rifle Association, with Alexander Torshin.
6.) Michael Flynn. According to the Wall Street Journal there is evidence of "Russian hackers discussing how to obtain emails from Mrs. Clinton’s server and then transmit them to Mr. Flynn."
Flynn was paid $67,000 during the campaign by Russian interests, among his many foreign financial entanglements, and attended a public dinner event with Vladimir Putin. He and his son met with the Russian ambassador, Sergey Kislyak, about a week before that event.
During the inauguration, Michael Flynn sent a text message to a colleague that they were "good to go" on plans to collaborate with Russia on a nuclear energy project in the Middle East which was being impeded by the sanctions against Russia.
Acting Attorney General Sally Yates testified that she warned the Trump administration that Michael Flynn could be blackmailed by Russia because they could threaten to expose his lies about what he discussed with them during the transition. However, Flynn remained in office for 18 days, until after these lies were exposed by the US media, despite the risk posed by having someone susceptible to Russian threats in such a sensitive position.
7.) Roger Stone. Trump adviser Roger Stone was in contact with Guccifer 2.0 via Twitter direct messages. Since Guccifer 2.0 was a Russian agent, Stone's direct communication with him about the e-mail hack constitutes a form of collusion with the Russian government.
Furthermore, after testifying to the House Intelligence Committee that he had no contacts with Russians, Stone revealed in June of 2018 that he had been approached by a Russian national offering to sell damaging information on Hillary Clinton (Stone claims he declined the offer.)
Stone is also known to have exchanged messages with WikiLeaks. A witness claims that Stone had learned as early as Spring 2016 that WikiLeaks had e-mails which would embarrass top Democrats. Former Trump adviser Sam Nunberg said that Stone told him that he had actually met with WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, a detail which is supported by e-mails Stone sent. WikiLeaks, in turn, was also in contact with Guccifer 2.0. In a Sept. 18, 2016, message, Mr. Stone urged an acquaintance who knew Mr. Assange to ask the WikiLeaks founder for emails that he believed would hurt Clinton's campaign.
A Republican campaign worker named Andrew Nevins received Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee documents from Guccifer 2.0, some of which he posted publicly on his blog, and shared with Roger Stone.
Trump himself mentioned the WikiLeaks releases over a hundred times in the final weeks of the campaign. Trump called on Russia to release whatever they had from Hillary Clinton's server, even as he denied Russian involvement in the hacking of the DNC.
8.) Alexander Nix and Steve Bannon. Alexander Nix, the CEO of a company who acted as consultants for the Trump campaign, offered to help WikiLeaks sort through the emails taken by Russian hackers from the DNC servers in July of 2016. And a former employee of the company testified that it"used Russian researchers to gather its data, (and) openly shared information on 'rumor campaigns' and 'attitudinal inoculation'" with companies and executives linked to the Russian intelligence agency FSB. A director at the same company claimed to have channelled cryptocurrency payments and donations to WikiLeaks, and to have met with Julian Assange to discuss the American election in February, 2017.
That company, "Cambridge Analytica," was not just a contractor -- its leadership and funding were closely linked to the Trump campaign. Steve Bannon, Trump's campaign chief, had served as vice president and secretary of Cambridge Analytica from June 2014 to August 2016, when he resigned to take the position with Trump. He was also on its board of directors, and owned a stake in the company. As early as 2014, under Bannon's leadership, Cambridge Analytica was reportedly testing slogans which would eventually be used by the Trump campaign. They were working with Trump and his team before Trump even announced his candidacy (and former staffers are now working on the Trump 2020 campaign.) As consultants, Cambridge Analytica “ran all the digital campaign, the television campaign and our data informed all the strategy” for Trump, according to Nix.
Given these close links, there is not a clear distinction between Cambridge Analytica offering to help sort through hacked emails for distribution or sharing information with Russian entities, and the Trump campaign doing so. At the very least, Cambridge Analytica seem to have been attempting to take advantage of Russian efforts.
Cambridge Analytica also had some pre-existing links to Russia. They gave briefings on their political work to Moscow firm Lukoil, and the researcher who developed their crucial algorithm worked for St Petersburg university and was funded by the Russian government for his research into social media. Facebook data which Cambridge Analytica acquired under false pretenses was accessed from Russia. Cambridge Analytica tested the popularity of Vladimir Putin among Americans in 2014, at the direction of Steve Bannon. An employee of Cambridge Analytica's parent company named Sam Patten had also worked for many years with Konstantin Kilimnik, the same suspected Russian spy that Paul Manafort met with.
Cambridge Analytica aslo played a role in the British campaign to leave the European union, supporting a key Russian policy goal: breaking up the EU.
9.) Erik Prince. An informal adviser to Trump’s transition team whose sister is education secretary Betsy De Vos, Erik Prince attended a secret meeting in the Seychelles with a Putin-linked Russian financier, which appears to have been one of a series of such meetings -- and the others included Russians as well. As information contradicting his testimony has come out, it now appears that Prince lied to Congress about the nature of those meetings.
Erik Prince also arranged a meeting in Trump Tower Aug. 3, 2016 with foreign emissaries who offered to help the Trump campaign, which Donald Trump Jr. attended. A man named George Nader attended the meeting and said that the princes who led Saudi Arabia and the the United Arab Emirates were eager to help Trump win election as president. Israeli social media specialist Joel Zamel also attended and offered social media campaign services; he was paid $2 million after the election by Nader.
Officials from Israel, Saudia Arabia, and the UAE have repeatedly encouraged their American counterparts to consider ending the Ukraine-related sanctions on Russia in return for Putin’s help in removing Iranian forces from Syria.
10.) Jeff Sessions. Russia’s ambassador to Washington, Sergey Kislyak, told his superiors in Moscow in the spring of 2016 that he discussed campaign-related matters, including policy issues important to Moscow, with Jeff Sessions. (Sessions does not recall such a meeting.)
Later in the summer, at the Republican National Convention, Kislyak met with Sessions and two other Trump campaign advisers. (Sessions acknowledges that this meeting took place.) At that convention, the Trump campaign successfully pushed to modify the party's platform, to remove language about arming Ukrainians fighting against the Russian invasion of Ukraine.
Finally in September, Sessions met with Kislyak again in Sessions' office. (Sessions acknowledges that this meeting took place as well. He denies any collusion with Kislyak at either of the meetings he acknowledges.)
At his confirmation hearing, Sessions had initially testified to Congress that he had not met with any Russians at all during the campaign. When the meetings with Kislyak were revealed, Sessions corrected his testimony and recused himself from oversight of the Russia investigation.
11.) Paul Erickson, Maria Butina, and Alexander Torshin. A Russian graduate student named Maria Butina has been arrested and charged with conspiracy to "infiltrate organizations active in U.S. politics in an effort to advance the interests of the Russian Federation.” She traveled around the US (and invited Americans to Moscow) meeting with political leaders, gun-rights activists, and student groups. Emails obtained using search warrants indicate that she was trying to build a resume that would give her access to officials who were the target of a Russian government influence campaign. Her goal was to establish “back channel” communications with American politicians.
Butina was taking orders from Alexander Torshin, the deputy governor of Russia's central bank and a former Russian senator, and was involved in a sexual relationship with Paul Erickson, a US Citizen and NRA activist. At one point during the 2016 campaign, Butina and Alexander Torshin tried unsuccessfully to broker a meeting between Mr Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin. Separately, her romantic partner Paul Erickson wrote an email to Jeff Sessions' former Chief of Staff, then working for the Trump campaign. “Putin is deadly serious about building a good relationship with Mr. Trump,. He wants to extend an invitation to Mr. Trump to visit him in the Kremlin before the election. Let’s talk through what has transpired and Senator Sessions’s advice on how to proceed.”
At an National Rifle Association convention in Kentucky in May 2016, Butina's boss Alexander Torshin spoke to Donald Trump Jr. (The FBI reportedly has obtained wiretaps of the discussions leading up that meeting from the Spanish government, which was investigating Torshin for money laundering.)
Torshin claims to have met with the future president himself in 2015 in Nashville, where that year's NRA convention was held. In December 2015 his associates in Moscow hosted an NRA delegation which included Sherriff David Clarke, who worked for a Trump-supporting political action committee.
At a speech in July 2015, Trump took a question from Maria Butina from stage. The question was about sanctions on Russia. Trump publicly replied "I believe I would get along very nicely with Putin, OK? And I mean, where we have the strength. I don’t think you’d need the sanctions. I think we would get along very, very well.”
Russian sources reported that Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov and US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo had discussed Butina's case, but the American read out of the call did not mention her.